The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current research on hallucinogen induced psychiatric disorders. In addition to LSD and psilocybin hallucinogens of biologic origin are increasingly used by adolescents and young adults.


Relevant literature and related articles were identified by means of a computerized MEDLINE search including the years 1997 – 2007. As keywords “hallucinogen induced psychosis”, “hallucinogen induced flashback”, “hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD)” were used. Finally, 64 journal articles and books out of 103 were included in the review.


Acute psychotic syndromes in adolescents are rarely due to intoxications with hallucinogenic drugs. However, clinical relevance of flashback phenomena as post-hallucinogenic psychiatric disorder has to be disputed. Because of the high popularity of biogenic hallucinogens and LSD knowledge of intoxications and resulting psychiatric disorders as well as medical complications and therapeutical approaches are clinically important. Especially intoxications with drugs of herbal origin like tropanalcaloids play an important role in emergency situations.

Hermle, L., Kovar, K. A., Hewer, W., & Ruchsow, M. (2008). [Hallucinogen-induced psychological disorders]. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 76(6), 334-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1038191

Link to full text [Article in German]