The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-subjective response relationship of a novel oral solution of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) that was developed for clinical use in research and patients.


LSD (100 μg) was administered in 27 healthy subjects using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. Plasma levels of LSD, nor-LSD, and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) and subjective drug effects were assessed up to 11.5 hours.


First-order elimination kinetics were observed for LSD. Geometric mean maximum concentration (Cmax ) values (range) of 1.7 (1.0-2.9) ng/mL were reached at a tmax (range) of 1.7 (1.0-3.4) hours after drug administration. The plasma half-life (t1/2 ) was 3.6 (2.4-7.3) hours. The AUC was 13 (7.1-28) ng·h/mL. No differences in these pharmacokinetic parameters were found between male and female subjects. Plasma O-H-LSD but not nor-LSD (< 0.01 ng/mL) concentrations could be quantified in all subjects. Geometric mean O-H-LSD Cmax values (range) of 0.11 (0.07-0.19) ng/mL were reached at a tmax (range) of 5 (3.2-8) hours. The t1/2 and AUC values of O-H-LSD were 5.2 (2.6-21) hours and 1.7 (0.85-4.3) ng·h/mL, respectively. The subjective effects of LSD lasted (mean ± SD) for 8.5 ± 2.0 hours (range: 5.3-12.8 h), and peak effects were reached 2.5 ± 0.6 hours (range 1.6-4.3 h) after drug administration. EC50 values were 1.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL and 1.9 ± 1.0 ng/mL for “good” and “bad” subjective drug effects, respectively.


The present study characterized the pharmacokinetics of LSD and its main metabolite O-H-LSD. The subjective effects of LSD were closely associated with changes in plasma concentrations over time.

Holze, F., Duthaler, U., Vizeli, P., Müller, F., Borgwardt, S., & Liechti, M. E. (2019). Pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of a novel oral LSD formulation in healthy subjects. British journal of clinical pharmacology., 10.1111/bcp.13918

Link to full text