Psychedelics and related drugs: therapeutic possibilities, mechanisms and regulation

Psychedelics and related drugs: therapeutic possibilities, mechanisms and regulation

Abstract

The word “psychedelic” derives from the Greek terms for mind—psyche—and “delos” which means “clear, manifest,” so in essence, psychedelic drugs can be seen as the prototype “window on the mind” concept. The term was originally coined in the 1950s to describe lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and other hallucinogens, drugs that profoundly alter human experience. These have subsequently been shown to act primarily as agonists at the 5-HT2Areceptor in the brain. Research into the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of psychedelic and related drugs peaked in the late 1960s but then stagnated for 50 years after the 1971 UN Psychotropics Convention made psychedelic research with humans almost impossible to carry out (Kyzar et al. 2017).

Recently, however, this area is experiencing a renaissance as drugs often associated with recreational use—such as LSD, ketamine, and cannabis/cannabinoids—have been shown to have therapeutic potential in a range of disorders such as treatment-resistant depression, suicidal ideation, and some pediatric epilepsies. Further, recent pilot studies suggest that MDMA as well as the classic psychedelics, LSD, and psilocybin may contribute to the pharmacopeia for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorders. Research has also been stimulated by functional neuroimaging studies of single doses of psychedelics showing that they produce widespread changes in brain connectivity as well as profound alterations to perception and cognition. At the same time, as one would expect from a relatively fledgling area, many questions remain about mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy. These include what type of psychological therapies best combine with which type of psychedelic drug, whether some types of drug have benefits even without psychological treatment, what the optimal doses are, from single dose through to intermittent or repeated dosing. The current renaissance in empirical psychedelic research stimulated this Special Issue of Psychopharmacology. The articles are grouped into three sections: Clinical efficacy and clinical issues; Effects and Mechanisms of action; Regulation and history.

Curran, H. V., Nutt, D., & de Wit, H. (2018). Psychedelics and related drugs: therapeutic possibilities, mechanisms and regulation. 10.1007/s00213-017-4822-3

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